UMMU IBRAHIM QURAN BERJALAN TI PALESTINA

23 Des

Abdullah bin Mubarok, salah sawios ulama tabi’in anu kawentar, dina hiji dinten maksad ngalaksanakeun ibadah haji ka Baitulloh Al Harom. Satengahing perjalanan anjeuna pendak hiji istri sepuh nganggo jilbab anu kandel anu kawasna ieu sepuh teh keur bingung.  Abdullah bin Mubarok naros “Assalamualaikum wr.” diwaler ku eta sepuh ku ayat al Quran, “Salaamun qoulam mirrobbirrohiim.” (QS Yasin:58). Ngadangu waleran anu teu sabiasana, Abdullah bin Mubarok panasaran hayang langkung uninga saha ieu sepuh teh. Saterasna uplek ngobrol paduduaan. Abd: Kunaon umi aya di ieu tempat, naha anjeun kasasar?” Diwaler ku ayat al Quran ku Umi: “Waman yudllillaahu falaa hadiyalah (mangka sing saha nu disasarkaeu ku Alloh moal aya nu mere pituduh ka manehna).(QS al A’rof:187)” Oh enya si umi teh nuju kasasar. Abd: Umi teh bade mulih kamana?” Umi: Subhaanalladzii asroo bi’abdihii lailam minal masjidil haroomi ila masjidil aqsho (QS al Isro:1), Maha suci Alloh nu parantos ngalaksanakeu perjalanan pikeun hambana ti masjidil haroom ka masji al aqsho.” Tina waleranana umi teh tos zarah ti Baitulloh sarta rek mulang ka Palestin. Abd:”Ti iraha umi kasar di ieu tempat?” Umi: Tsalatsa layaalin sawiyya…(3 peuting kalayan aya dina kaayaan sehat (QS Maryam:10). Abd: Geuning umi teu katingali nyandak tuangeun?” Umi: “Huwa yuth’imuni wa yasqiin (Alloh nu mere tuangeun sarta mantena nu mere inumeun) QS Asy Syuara:78. ” Abd: Lamun anjeun bade, sim kuring nyandak tuangeun.” Umi: Tsumma atimmush shiyama illal laili (Al Baqoroh:87), Maka anggeuskeun puasa nepi ka peuting.”  maksadna si umi keur saum. Abd: “Pan ayeuna sanes sasih siam?” Umi: “Faman tahowa’a khoiron fahuwa khoirullohu, (QS Al Baqoroh 184, maksadna nuju saum sunat). Abd: Pan umi teh nuju safar, Alloh masihan rukhsoh meunang buka). Umi: “Wa an tashumu khoirullakum, (QS Al Baqoroh 184, puasa leuwih hade pikeun anjeun). Abd: Tempat ieu teu katingali aya cai, dimana umi wudlu?” Umi: “Fa in lam tajiduu maan fatayamamu sho’idan thoyyiba, (QS An Nisa 43, lamun anjeu teu manggih cai maka tayamum ku kebul nu beresih). Abd: Kunaon umi nyarios teu saperti nu lian, ngawaler ku ayat ayat al Quran?” Umi : “Maa yalfidu min qoulin illa ladaihi roqiibun ‘atiidun, (QS AL Qof:18, taya ucapan nu diucapkeun iwal direkam ku para malaikat rokib jeung atid). Abd: “Saleresna umi teh saha sareng naha aangkatan teu disarengan ku caroge?” Umi: ” Yaa ayyuhalladziina aamanuu laa tas-aluu ‘an syai’in  tubda lakum tasukum, (QS Al Maidah : 101, hey jalma jalma nu iman ulah tatanya hal hal anu lamun seug dijelaskeun bakal nyusahkeun anjeun)……

Saterusna dialog/paguneman  antara Abdullah bin Mubarok sareng Ummu Ibrahim kapapanjangan, tetep tiap patarosan diwaler ku Ummu Ibrahim ku ayat ayat al Quran. Duanana neraskeun perjalanan ka Palestina, Sabadana mungkas obrolan Abdullah ngahaleuangkeun syair syair, ditegor ku Ummu Ibrahim : “Faqrouu ma tayassaro minal quran, (QS Al Muzamil:2, Maka bacalah naon nu ku anjeun apal tina al Quran). Dugi ka Palestina, Abdullah sareng Ummu Ibrahim lebet ka bumina Ummu Ibrahim, sarta pendak sareng tilu putrana. Ummu Ibrahim tetep mangsa ngobrol sareng putrana ngagunakeun ayat – ayat al Quran. Abdullah tumaros ka salah saurang putrana Ummu Ibrahim kunaon ummu Ibrahim nyarios nganggo ayat ayat Al Quran. Diwaler ku salah saurang putrana yen Ummu Ibrahim nyarios nganggo ayat ayat Al Quran ti kawit 40 taun kepengker, lantaran anjeuna ngarasa sieun  bisi ucapanana anu goreng dicatet ku Malaikat Rokib sareng Atid. Abdullh bin Mubarok nyarios:”Dzaalika fadlullohi yu-thi may yasya walloh dzul fadlil ‘adhiim, QS Al Jumuah, Eta karunia Alloh nu Mantena paparinkeun ka sing saha nu dpikarepna, sarta Alloh mibanda karunia nu badag.

Jalma jalma nyebat Ummu Ibrahim teh Quran nu leumpang sabab tiap ucapan mantena ngagunakeun ayat ayat al Quran. Ieu hikayat mere pelajaran ka urang sadayana, nu kadang tiap ucapan urang sok keuna kana paribasa “abong biwir teu diwengku letah teu tulangan” ngomong sakarep ingsun kajeun batur rek ngareunah atawa hanteu. Padahal lisan atawa ucapan nu kaluar bakal dicatet ku Alloh ngalangkungan damel Malaikat Rokib sareng Atid taya ucapan nu baris lesot tina panalingaannana. Urang teu kedah nurutan cara Ummu Ibrahim, sabab pamohalan urang tiasa apal sadayana ayat ayat al quran, lian ku umur geus cueut ka hareup, boga panyakit hese apal gancang poho, ngan sakedikna tiap ucapan nu kaluar tina lisan urang ngandung hikamh sarta fadilah nu teu lesot tina sari sari ajaran Al Quran. Insya Alloh ku cara kitu urang tiasa ngurangan dosa dosa nu diakibatkeun ku lisan uarang sadayana. Rosululloh Saw ngadawuh, “Qul khoiron awli yasmuth”

Ucapkeun nu hade atawa cicing sakalian! Barokallohu lii walakum

HUKUM MENGHADIAHI SURAT AL – FATIHAH

22 Des

Tanya: Kebiasaan masyaraka Muslim Indonesia, bila hendak membuka atau menutup acara selalu mengawalinya dengan membaca surat A-Fatihah bersama, baik diacara resmi seperti rapat atau acara tak resmi seperti pengajian, tahlilan, manaqiban dan lain lain, bahkan suka ditambah dengan do’a agar pahala bacaannya dihadiahkan kepada orang yang sudah meninggal. Apakah pernah Nabi Saw melakukan hal ini?

 

Jawab: Kebiasaan menghadiahkan surat Al-Fatihah tidak pernah diamalkan oleh Rosululloh Saw dan juga para shohabat Beliau. Kebiasaan tersebut bertentangan dengan firman Alloh Swt yang yang tercantum dalam surat An-Najm ayat 38-40, yang artinya:

“Seseorang pemikul (dosa) tidak akan memikul beban (dosa) yang lain. Dan sesungguhnya tidak ada (pahala) bagi seseorang kecuali apa yang dia kerjakan. Dan sesungguhnya pekerjaan dia akan diperlihatkan.”

Berkenaan dengan firman Alloh di atas, Imam Syafi’i beristinbat:

“Bahwasannya bacaan (Al-Quran) tidak akan sampai pahalanya yang dihadiahkan kepada orang – orang yang telah meninggal, sebab bukan amalnya (si mati) dan bukan pula kasabnya. Oleh karena itu Rosululloh Saw tidak menyunatkan kepada umatnya dan tidak menganjurkannya, juga tidak menunjukinya, tidak dengan nash dan tidak dengan isyarat dan tidak dinukil yang demikian itu dari seorang shohabat ra pun. Andaikan menghadiahkan pahala bacaan Al-Quran itu baik, tentu mereka (para shohabat) lebih dahulu melaksanakannya sebelum kita.” (Tafsir Ibnu Katsir 4 : 258)

Semua pahala, ganjaran dan imbalan yang penuh nikmat itu akan diberikan nanti di akherat setelah hari kiamat, setelah diadakan hisab pemeriksaan amal, dan tidak diberikan di dunia. Begitu beramal saleh langsung diberikan, tidak seperti itu. Dengan demikian mustahil pahala bisa dipindah tangankan kepada orang lain.

Sesuatu yang dapat dihadiahkan adalah sesuatu yang sudah menjadi hak milik. Maka dari itu, bagaimana mungkin pahala atau ganjaran yang belum menjadi milik kita dapat dihadiahkan kepada orang lain. Selain itu, setiap amal yang diterima oleh Alloh adalah yang ikhlas, apakah mungkin amal yang didasari oleh niat memberikan pahala kepada orang lain akan mendpata ganjaran dari Alloh? Belum tentu, sebab banyak hal yang mempengaruhi apakah amal itu diterima dan diberi ganjaran oleh Alloh atau tidak.

Kesimpulannya, amal membaca surat Al-Fatihah dengan maksud menghadiahi orang yang sudah mati adalah bid’ah. Walloohu a’lam.

APA MAKSUD DARI ULUL AMRI

22 Des

Tanya: Al-Quran 4 : 59 menerangkan, YAA AYYUHALLADZIINA AAMANUU ATHII’ULLOOHA WA ATHII’URROSUULA WA ULIL AMRI MINKUM. Mohon penjelasan siapakah yang dimaksud ulul amri di atas?

 

Jawab: Arti dari ayat tersebut di atas adalah: “Hai orang – orang yang beriman, taatlah kepada Alloh, taatlah kepda Rosul, dan kepada ulil amri dari golongan mu (dari orang – orang yang beriman).

Uluu atau ulil secara lughoh artinya mempunyai (pemilik) al amri artinya urusan. Ulil amri bentuk jamak mufrodnya dzuu, tidak mempunyai mufrod dari lafaznya.

Syekh Muhammad Abduh menjelaskan bahwa yang dimaksud dengan ulil amri adalah:

“Jamaa’ah ahlul halli wal ‘aqdi (himpunan kaum muslimin yang mempunyai hak mengikat dan membuka (ikatan) yang terdiri atas para pemimpin pemerintah, hakim, ulama, pemimpin militer dan zu’ama. Yaitu mereka yang menjadi tempat kembalinya permasalahan yang berkaitan dengan kepentingan dan kemaslahatan umat dan rakyat.”

Ulil amri itu adalah jama’ah, mereka itu terdiri dari bermacam – macam ahli yang mendapat kepercayaan umat, bukan perseorangan. Dan kholifah (imam) itu termasuk salah satu dari al jamaah. Kholifah wajib bermusyawarah dengan jamaah (ulil amri).

Selanjutnya Syekh Muhammad Abduh menjelaskan: “Maka apabila mereka telah bersepakat atas suatu perkara atau hukum, maka wajib ditaati dengan syarat bahwa mereka dari golongan kita (mukminin), dan keputusan mereka tidak menyalahi aturan Alloh dan perintah Rosululloh saw yang diketahui dengan mutawatir, dan hendaklah mereka bebas dalam pembahasannya dan persepakatannya, dengan syarat bahwa yang mereka sepakati itu urusan kemaslahatan umum yaitu urusan ulil amri mempunyai kekuatan untuk memutuskannya. Adapun urusan ibadah dan ‘itiqod (akidah) keagamaan tidak ada kaitannya dengan urusan ahlul halli wal ‘aqdi, tapi hal itu diambil dalilnya dari Alloh swt dan Rosul-Nya (Al-Quran dan Hadits saja).”

Walloohu a’lam  

HADITS TENTANG BAI’AT

22 Des

Tanya: Dalam sebuah hadits ada dinyatakan: “Barangsiapa yang mati dan tidak ada bai’at di atas pundaknya (kepada kholifah), maka ia telah mati dalam keadaan jahiliyah.”  Mohon penjelasan tentang maksud hadits tersebut!


Jawab: Hadits tersebut lengkapnya adalah: “Man khola’a yadaa min tho’ati laqiyallohu yaumal qiyaamati laa hujjata lahuu waman maa ta walaisa fii ‘unuqihi bai’atun maata miitatun jaahiliyyata”

artinya: “Barang siapa yang melepaskan tangan dari keta’atan, ia akan bertemu dengan Alloh pada hari kiamat tidak mempunyai hujjah, dan siapa yang mati yang tidak ada pada pundaknya bai’at (menentang bai’at yang sah) maka ia mati seperti yang mati di zaman jahiliyah.”

Hadits ini diriwayatkan oleh Imam Muslim dengan derajat shohih. Adapun maksudnya: Di negara Islam apabila umat atau rakyat telah bersepakat seia sekata mengangkat seorang kholifah (imam), kemudian ada orang atau kelompok yang tidak setuju. Mereka berusaha menggulingkan kholifah tersebut yang akibatnya mengakibatkan huru hara antar mereka, maka orang yang mati akibat kerusuhan tersebut tidak beda dengan mati di zaman jahiliyyah, artinya tidak ada undang undang , tidak ada hukum, bukan berarti mati dalam keadaan kafir seperti pemahaman sepintas tapi matinya seperti matinya orang jahiliyyah.

Mietatan bukan maitatan, beda pelafazannya dan beda pula artinya. Maytatan jahiliyyatan, mati kafir seperti orang jahiliyah. sedangkan miytatan menunjukkan sifatnya. Macam matinya semacam orang mati di zaman jahiliyyah, sebab tidak ada pemimpin yang ditaati semua pihak.

Dalam kitab An – Nihayah diterangkan arti hadits tersebut, “Keluar dari taat kepada sulthannya dengan melakukan pelanggaran kejahatan” (An-Nihayah 1 :313).

Hadits di atas mengandung arti anjuran dan nasihat bahwa umat (rakyat) harus sabar apabila melihat sesuatu yang tidak disukai dari tindakan imam atau amir terpilih, sesuai dengan anjuran Rosululloh saw: “Barang siapa yang melihat dari amirnya sesuatu yang tidak ia setujui, hendaklah ia bersabar (jangan berontak dengan mengacau atau menggunakan kekerasan). Sesungguhnya tidak ada yang memisahkan diri dari al-jamaah walaupun sejengkal, kemudian ia mati karenanya, maka ia mati seperti orang yang mati di zaman jahiliyyah.” (HR Bukhoriy-Muslim)

Kesimpulannya bila permusyawaratan “al-jamaah” para utusan rakyat yang mendapat kepercayaan yang terdiri atas para ahli yang dibutuhkan negara telah sepakat bersama berusaha membatalkan bai’at yang sudah sah, yang akibatnya dapat membangkitkan kekacauan, sebab orang yang mati  dalam kekacauan seperti itu sifat matinya seperti orang yang mati di negara yang kusut pemerintahannya seperti kekalutan di zaman jahiliyyah. Walloohu a’lam

SONG, A TEACHING – LEARNING MEDIA

20 Des

English Songs
According to Penny Ur songs are taught for a variety of purpose. Those are:
1. Songs are used mainly for the sake of the language they contain (especially composed English teaching songs are frequently used).
– For the sake of vocabulary or structures they contain;
– To get students to produce oral English by singing them.
2. Songs are taught as source of pleasure in their own right (authentic ones).
– As an aspect of English language culture;
– For fun.

Using Songs in the Classroom
Songs can be exploited in many ways. They are:
1. The close or gap fills. This is the most familiar and popular activity, and for that reason is probably over – used. However, there are many important things to bear in mind when using them, and there are many different ways to use them.
– Have a point, be it vocabulary or preposition or whatever.
– Don’t close three or more in a row
– For lower levels: give first letter, miss out words ending, give dashes for letters, or give a glossary.
– Give vocabulary clues or synonyms for the missing words.
– Get students to work in pairs to predict words before play the tape.
– Insert extra words which students then cross out as they listen.
– Change the words, as in “careful shouts” or “countless whiskies”.
– Cloze unstressed, then stressed words in the same song, and have students discuss why one is easier than the other.
– Cloze several words in a row and students have to guess not only form (adjective, adverb, noun, verb, preposition) but words, rhythm and rhyme.
2. A – B Activities
Students match beginnings and ends of lines.
3. Mixed up activities. Generally, have the lines of the song on separate strips of paper
– Students put down strips as they hear them
– Students mixed up lines / verses
– Students try to organize in advance (use prompts)
4. Dictation
– Wall dictation
– Self dictation
– Part dictation
5. Translation
– Class chooses a song from their own language.
– Groups translate
– Check with other group
– Combine the best. Then work on rhyme nd rhythm.
6. Jigsaw Listening
– Groups listen to different songs with the same or different themes and peer teach vocabulary, compare.
7. Composing
– Listen to the song
– Students add verses of their own
– Students finish the line in each verse, then listen to the check.
– In groups, students then write their own verse.
8. Writing
Put random words from the song on the board. Students try and write the “tale of the song”.
– Students paraphrase the song
– Cut the song in half, students predict the other half.
9. Pronunciation
– He’s got the whole world…/h/ sound
– Do I speak double Dutch to a real double Dutches…/d/ sound
10. Vocabulary
– Miming verbs
– Dictionary work
– Matching
11. Listening
– Give song word list. Songs number as they hear them
– Sound discrimination, e.g. tempted / tended
12. Song Posters
Arrange lyrics and pictures, or just lyrics, or translate.

The Effect of Songs on Language Learners
“We were given two ears but only one mouth, because listening is twice as hard as talking.”
In helping language learners acquire a foreign language teachers frequently use music. This is not surprising since the literature abounds with the positive statements regarding the efficacy of music as a vehicle for students’ acquisition. It has been reported to help learners acquire vocabulary and grammar, improve spelling, and develop the linguistic skills of reading, writing, speaking and listening (Jalongo and Bromley, 1984, McCarthey, 1985)
Music is advantageous for some other reasons. First, for most students, singing songs and listening to music are enjoyable experiences. The experience is so pleasurable that it is not uncommon for students to “pester” their teacher so that they can sing, again and again. Also, as students repeatedly sing songs, their confidence level rise. Furthermore, by engaging in pleasurable experience, learners are relaxed and their inhibition about acquiring a foreign language are lessened. Yet, while they are more relaxed, they are also more attentive than usual, and therefore, more receptive to learning. Through songs, students are exposed to authentic examples of the foreign language. Target vocabulary, grammar and patterns are modelled in context.
Using songs as a vehicle for students language learning is consistent with Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences. Songs can be used in any number of ways to instruct language learners.
On the other hand, students may learn to sing songs with lyrics containing keys target language structures. Clearly, there are numerous ways in which music can be used to instruct the students.

THE DEFINITION OF LISTENING

20 Des

The Definiton of Listening
Listening is the first language mode that children acquire. It provides a foundation for all aspects of language and cognitive development, and it plays a life – long role in the processes of learning and communication essential to productive participation in life. A study by Wilt (1950), which found that people listen 45 percent of the time they spend communicating, is still widely cited (e.g., Martin, 1987; Strother, 1987). Wilt found that 30 percent of communication time was spent speaking, 16 percents reading, and 9 percent writing. That finding confirm what Rankin had found in 1928 that people spent 70 percent of their waking time communicating and those three-fourths of this time were spent listening and speaking.
If we ask a group of students to give a one – word description of listening, some would say hearing; however, hearing is physical. Listening is following and understanding the sound, it is hearing with a purpose. Good listening is built on three basic skills: attitude, attention, and adjustment. These skills are known collectively as triple-A listening.
Listening is the absorption of the meaning of words and sentences by the brain. Listening leads to the understanding of facts and ideas. However, listening takes attention, or sticking to the task at hand in spite of distruction. It requires concentration, which is focusing on thoughts upon one particular problem. A person who incorporates listening with concentration is actively listening. Active listening is a method of responding to another that encourages communication.
Listening means the psychomotor process of receiving sounds waves through the ear and transmiting nerve impulse to the brain (Douglas, 1994 : 235). Listening is more than merely hearing sounds. Listening is an active process by which students receive, construct meaning form, and respond to spoken and or non verbal messages (Emmert, 1994).
Ronald and Roskelly (1985) define listening as an active process requiring the same skills of prediction, hypothesizing, checking, revising, and generalizing that reading and writing demand; and they present specific exercises to make students active listeners to the same “inner voice” one hears when writing.

Listening Comprehension
Listening comprehension is a classic (learn by doing” task. The learner must adopt the strategy of listening for key elements around which to construct meaning, all the way moving along with the flow of discourse. In reader mode, of course, one may rescan the text to solve difficulties, since the reader controls how information reaches the eyes. Listening is really quite different. You may read from left to right but you can’t listen from right to left. The instructor can not effectively ask the students to listen faster, nor does study of vocabulary and grammar produce direct improvement in hearing at the rate native speakers speak.
Listening is a core competency skill for relationships. As we become better skilled at listening, we uncover layers and layers of communication both in conversation and within ourselves. There is no communication that goes only one way, if we want to be heard we will practise hearing.
Listening is the basis of conflict resolution, the core of trust, and also central to the development of helthy self concept. It involves being in the moment, interpreting, and deferring judgement.
The followings are some definitions related to listening.
• Listening is a basis for communicating, learning, thinking, and acquiring awareness of the world around us.
• Listening needs to be taught
• Listening requires participation
• Listening is an information – processing activity
• Listening is more than just hearing; it is deciding what we listen to and how this can be done most effectively.
Wolvin and Coakley (1992) four different kinds of listening
• Comprehensive ( informational) Listening – students listen for the content of the message
• Critical (evaluative) Listening – students judge the message
• Appreciateive (aesthetic) Listening – students listen for enjoyment
• The rapeutic (empathetic) Listening – students listen to support others but not judge them
Factors which influence listening effectiveness
• The speaker
• The speech
• The situation and the listener
The principles of effective listening
• Preparing to listen
• Understanding the ideas of the speaker
• Evaluating the idea of the speaker
• Responding to the ideas of the speaker.

Developing Listening Skill
There are many ways of helping students to listen that can be integrated into the daily programs:
1. Give important instruction that the student should be expected to understand and remember
2. Ask the students to take message and carry out specific duties in the classroom
3. Invite other adults into the classroom to talk to the students.
4. Listen to and discuss sound – like a jet liner overhead, an ambulance siren, etc
5. Use the quite of story time to focus on specific sounds
6. Use songs and singing games to develop vocabulary and memory

The three basic Listening modes
1. Competitive or Combative Listening, happens when we are more interested in promoting our own point of view than in understanding or exploring someone else’s view. Either we listen for opening to take the floor, or for flaws or weak points we can attack. As we pretend to pay attention we are impatiently waiting for an opening, or internally formulating our rebuttal and planning our devastating comeback that will destroy their argument and make us the victor.
2. In Passive or Attentive Listening, we are genuinely interested in hearing and understanding the other person’s point of view. We are attentive and passively listen. We assume we heard and understand correctly, but stay passive and do not verify it.
3. Active or Reflective Listening, is the single most useful and important listening skill. In active listening wea re also genuinely interested in understanding what the other person is thinking, feeling, wanting or what the message means, and we are active in checking out our understanding before we respond with our own new message. We restate or paraphrase our understanding of their message and reflect it back to the sender for verification. This verification or feedback process is what distinguishes active listening and make it effective.

APPROACH, METHOD, PROCEDURES AND TECHNIQUE

20 Des

Approach, Method, Procedures, and Technique

 •Approach: theories about the nature of language and language learning (the sources of the way things are done in the classroom and the reasons for doing them)

•Method: the practical realization of an approach (the decisions about types of activities, roles of teachers and learners, the materials, and syllabus organization)
•Method includes various procedures and techniques
Approaches, methods, procedures, and techniques
•Procedure: an ordered sequence of techniques
•Technique: any of a wide variety of exercise, activities, or devices used in the language classroom for realizing lesson objectives